European Employment and Labour Market Policy - OpenMind
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Google Scholar. Buchholz, S , Die Flexibilisierung des Erwerbsverlaufs.
Does Context Matter in an Era of Globalization? B18, pp. Hat das Arbeitsrecht noch Zukunft? Personalised recommendations. Cite chapter How to cite?
Confident consumers but insecure workers
However, the number of these regular workers has been decreasing. Volume 56 , Issue 3. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Original Article Open Access. Search for more papers by this author. Tools Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Temporary Work Agency Law amendment — liberalized temporary agency work except for a small number of occupations. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Monthly Wages of Regular Workers. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Power resources of unions to resist deregulatory proposals This section analyses why labour unions allowed the second Abe administration to propose deregulation of regular employment by examining their power resources and preferences see Gordon for a similar analytical perspective in the case of unemployment protection and ALMP among OECD countries.
Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Union Density in Japan. Figure 6 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Number of Strikes for More than a Half Day. Appelbaum, E. Work and Occupations , 39 4 : — Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Volume 56 , Issue 3 September Pages Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. In most provinces the LDC is not allowed to offer a term contract, just a variable price based on the spot market.
LDC prices are changed either monthly or quarterly.
The province of Ontario began deregulation of electricity supply in , but pulled back temporarily due to voter and consumer backlash at the resulting price volatility. The current status is a partially regulated structure in which consumers have received a capped price for a portion of the publicly owned generation.
The remainder of the price has been market price based and there are numerous competitive energy contract providers. However, Ontario is installing Smart Meters in all homes and small businesses and is changing the pricing structure to Time of Use pricing. All small volume consumers are to be shifted to the new rate structure by the end of There is price comparison service operating in these jurisdictions.
The province of Alberta has deregulated their electricity provision. Customers are free to choose which company they sign up with, but there are few companies to choose from and the price of electricity has increased substantially for consumers because the market is too small to support competition. If they choose they may remain with the utility at the Regulated Rate Option.
Former Premier Ralph Klein based the entire deregulation scheme on the Enron model, and continued with it even after the highly publicized and disastrous California electricity crisis and the collapse of Enron because of illegal accounting practices. The taxi industry was deregulated in Ireland leading to an influx of new taxis. This was due to the price of a licence dropping overnight. The number of taxis increased dramatically. The Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher started a programme of deregulation and privatisation after their victory at the general election. These included express coach Transport Act , British Telecom completed in , privatisation of London bus services , local bus services Transport Act and the railways The feature of all those privatisations was that their shares were offered to the general public.
From , the Labour governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown developed a programme of what they called " better regulation ". This included a general programme for government departments to review, simplify or abolish their existing regulations, and a "one in, one out" approach to new regulations. In , Chancellor Brown announced the "freeing" of the Bank of England to set monetary policy. They freed the Bank of England from direct government control and removed the power by the Bank of England [ citation needed ] and therefore by the government from controlling the financial activities of banks in the UK [ citation needed ].
In , new primary legislation the Legislative and Regulatory Reform Act was introduced to establish statutory principles and a code of practice and it permits ministers to make Regulatory Reform Orders RROs to deal with older laws which they deem to be out of date, obscure or irrelevant.
Labour Market Deregulation Or Regulation - A Comment On Dawkins
This act has often been criticised and called "The abolition of Parliament Act". New Labour did not privatise many publicly owned services because most had already been privatised by the previous Conservative government. However, some government-owned businesses such as Qinetiq were privatised. But a great deal of infrastructure and maintenance work previously carried out by government departments was contracted out out-sourced to private enterprise under the public—private partnership , with competitive bidding for contracts within a regulatory framework.
This included large projects such as building new hospitals for the NHS , building new state schools, and maintaining the London Underground. These privatisations were never offered to the general public to buy shares, instead being offered to commercial companies only. New Zealand Governments adopted policies of extensive deregulation from to The policies had the goal of liberalising the economy and were notable for their very comprehensive coverage and innovations. Specific policies included: floating the exchange rate; establishing an independent reserve bank; performance contracts for senior civil servants; public sector finance reform based on accrual accounting; tax neutrality; subsidy-free agriculture; and industry-neutral competition regulation.
Economic growth was resumed in New Zealand was changed from a somewhat closed and centrally controlled economy to one of the most open economies in the OECD. However, critics charge that the deregulation has brought little benefit to some sections of society, and has caused much of New Zealand's economy including almost all of the banks to become foreign-owned. Russia went through wide-ranging deregulation and concomitant privatization efforts in the late s under Boris Yeltsin , now partially reversed under Vladimir Putin.
The main thrust of deregulation has been the electricity sector see RAO UES , with railroads and communal utilities tied in second place. One problem that encouraged deregulation was the way in which the regulated industries often controlled the government regulatory agencies , using them to serve the industries' interests. Even where regulatory bodies started out functioning independently, a process known as regulatory capture often saw industry interests come to dominate those of the consumer. A similar pattern has been observed with the deregulation process itself, often effectively controlled by the regulated industries through lobbying the legislative process.
Such political forces, however, exist in many other forms for other special interest groups. Some of the examples of deregulation in the United States in the setting of industries are banking, telecommunications, airlines, and natural resources.
During the Progressive Era s— , Presidents Theodore Roosevelt , William Howard Taft , and Woodrow Wilson instituted regulation on parts of the American economy, most notably in regulating big business and industry. Some of their most prominent reforms are trust-busting the destruction and banning of monopolies , the creation of laws protecting the American consumer, the creation of a federal income tax by the Sixteenth Amendment ; the income tax used a progressive tax structure with especially high taxes on the wealthy , the establishment of the Federal Reserve , and the institution of shorter working hours , higher wages , better living conditions, better rights and privileges to trade unions, protection of rights of strikers , banning of unfair labor practices, and the delivery of more social services to the working classes and social safety nets to many unemployed workers, thus helping to facilitate the creation of a welfare state in the United States and eventually in most developed countries.
During the Presidencies of Warren Harding —23 and Calvin Coolidge —29 , the federal government generally pursued laissez-faire economic policies. Roosevelt implemented many economic regulations, including the National Industrial Recovery Act which was struck down by the Supreme Court , regulation of trucking, airlines and the communications industry, the institution of the Securities Exchange Act of , and the Glass—Steagall Act , which was passed in These s regulations stayed largely in place until Richard Nixon 's Administration.
However, historians lack consensus in describing the causal relationship between various events and the role of government economic policy in causing or ameliorating the Depression.
Deregulation gained momentum in the s, influenced by research by the Chicago school of economics and the theories of George Stigler and others. Two leading 'think tanks' in Washington, the Brookings Institution and the American Enterprise Institute , were active in holding seminars and publishing studies advocating deregulatory initiatives throughout the s and s.
Cornell economist Alfred E. Kahn played a central role in both theorizing and participating in the Carter Administration 's efforts to deregulate transportation. The first comprehensive proposal to deregulate a major industry in the United States, transportation, originated in the Richard Nixon Administration and was forwarded to Congress in late