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While the degree of ambient noise was never measured, recordings were performed in a soundproof room to minimize the effects of ambient noise. The study is limited by our study population and poor control of intrinsic factors that may affect the pediatric voice. Study patients were recruited from a tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. While all attempts were made to limit extralaryngeal influences on voice, our patients do not necessarily represent a true normative pediatric population because of the setting from which they were recruited. We did not control the frequency or intensity of voice recordings.

In addition, we did not control for caffeine intake, sleep deprivation, hydration status, or menstrual status of study patients, all of which could potentially influence voice perturbation and variability. However, the extent to which these factors may influence vocal consistency is unclear, and again each patient served as his or her own control. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether continuous speech recordings could be obtained in the pediatric population and if recordings would be consistent over time.

The study was not designed to evaluate if acoustic measurements of continuous speech are stable across vocal tasks and was not powered to perform subgroup analyses to look at sex- or age-related differences in consistency or perturbation. A larger study is required to understand the frequency-based acoustic measurement characteristics of the pediatric population with voice or speech disorders and to identify changes that occur to these measurements in children with various types of dysphonia and in response to treatment.

In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, that addresses consistency of frequency-based acoustic measurements in children. It is also the first study evaluating the consistency of frequency-based measures of frequency and perturbation across 2 time points. Single sustained vowel utterances and continuous speech provide consistent measures of frequency.

TM Karandeep's Speech-Project 1

Frequency-based analysis of sustained vowel utterances improves consistency over time-based analysis, and frequency-based analysis of continuous speech demonstrates good to excellent consistency. Continuous speech recordings can be used to evaluate the vocal acoustics in children.

Further studies are needed to understand frequency-based acoustic measurements in the developing pediatric population without voice or speech disorders as well as in the pediatric population with dysphonia. Corresponding Author: Gillian R. Author Contributions: All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Infusino, Maurer, Hartnick.


Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported. All Rights Reserved. Table 1. View Large Download. Identification and remediation of pediatric fluency and voice disorders. J Pediatr Health Care. PubMed Google Scholar. The prevalence of childhood dysphonia: a cross-sectional study. J Voice. PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Voice disorders in children. Establishment of a normative pediatric acoustic database. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.

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Toward improved ecological validity in the acoustic measurement of overall voice quality. Outcomes measurement in voice disorders. J Speech Lang Hear Res. Clin Linguist Phon. Spectral- and cepstral-based measures during continuous speech.

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Acoustic and perceptual parameters relating to connected speech are more reliable measures of hoarseness than parameters relating to sustained vowels. Cepstral peak prominence. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. Computer-assisted voice analysis. Consistency of voice frequency and perturbation measures in children.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Intrasubject variability of objective voice measures. Consistency of fundamental frequency and perturbation in repeated phonations of sustained vowels, reading, and connected speech. J Speech Hear Disord. Reliability of objective voice measures of normal speaking voices.

Effect of caffeine on the vocal folds. J Laryngol Otol.

J Speech Hear Res. PLoS One. Acoustic correlates of breathy vocal quality. Spectral- and cepstral-based acoustic features of dysphonic, strained voice quality. Estimating dysphonia severity in continuous speech. An acoustic analysis of fluctuations in the voices of normal adult speakers across three times of day.

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Invariance and variability in articulation and acoustics of natural perturbed speech

Views 2, Citations 4. View Metrics. Original Investigation. Gillian R. Hartnick, MD, MS 1. Back to top Article Information. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account.

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